Naturalisation of alien vascular plants in Flanders (Belgium), post 1972


The present paper provides an overview of all naturalized vascular plants in Flanders (Belgium) with emphasis on taxa naturalized after 1945. Besides, a checklist is presented, enumerating all non-native taxa (exl. archeophytes) recorded since 1972.
All non-indigenous vascular plants were taken into account. In practice, the delimitation native/non-native sometimes turned out to be difficult. Arguments for inclusion or exclusion are dealt with in detail.
The degree of naturalization of a given taxon is indicated using a manageable set of five definitions (following several other recent researchers): planted, ephemerous, persistent, naturalized or invasive. The selected status of each taxon is based on a revision of several herbaria, a revision of relevant literature, field check-up and data extracted from the Florabank database (= database with all floristic data from Flanders).
Nowadays, gardens and plantations proved to produce the largest amounts of non-indigenous taxa in Flanders. Moreover, most of the taxa with tendencies towards invasiveness are also garden-escapes (recently especially hydrophytes).
The major part of this paper consists of taxonomic enumeration (pteridophytes and spermatophytes, in alphabetical order according to family and genus) of those taxa believed to be naturalized after 1945. For every taxon the following data-set is dealt with:
1. Actual distribution, ,distribution ecology and trends;
2. Origin and vector of distribution
3. Ecology, competition and (potential) invasiveness.
An up-to-date distribution map for Flanders is provided if relevant (for instance if the taxon’s distribution pattern has changed considerably since the publication of the latest Belgian distribution atlas; Van Rompaey & Delvosalle 1978, 1979). Furthermore, a commented list is presented with taxa considered to be "persistent" and with taxa which are doubtfully naturalized.
Finally, a list with taxa already naturalized before 1945 is given.
In addition a checklist of vascular non-native (1972-2001) plants, excl. archeophytes, is provided. For each taxon the following data are presented: family, reference of the data, status (degree of naturalization), area of origin, mean of introduction, time of introduction and (exclusively for naturalized taxa) ecological data. Separately a list with doubtful taxa (identification and/or presence in Flanders need confirmation) is also presented.


adventitious flora, agricultural seeds, animal feed, animal fodder aliens, aqua-, Belgium, bird seed aliens, bird seed refuse, culture, dumps, ecology, Flanders, floristics, fodder plants, food refuse, freshwater, garden escapes, grain seed aliens, greenhouse escapes, introduced species, introduced species, invasive species, maintenance and change of biodiversity, naturalisation of alien species, oil-seed plants, origins, relics, seed mixtures for caged birds, spice aliens, spices, sylvi-, terrestrial, tips, tropical weeds, vascular plants, waste places, weeds


Belgium {Geographical scope}


Name Role Start End
Samain, Marie-Stéphanie admin
Van Landuyt, Wouter member 2000-03-01 2002-02-01
Verloove, Filip member 2000-03-01 2002-02-01
Goetghebeur, Paul promotor 2000-03-01 2002-02-01


Name Role Start End
Research Group Spermatophytes member
Flora of temperate regions member


Reference Role
Verloove, F., C. Vandenberghe & G. Heyneman, 1998. Grain aliens as potential new weed problems in Flanders. International Symposium on Crop Protection. author
Verloove F. & G. Heyneman, 1999. Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (Grote waternavel), snel uitbreidend in de omgeving van Gent. Dumortiera 74: 16-20. author
De Beer D. & F. Verloove, 2000. Panicum clandestinum (Poaceae) in België, nieuwe adventiefvondst voor Europa. Dumortiera 76: 21-24. author
Verloove F. & L. Vanhecke, 2000. Myriophyllum aquaticum: expansieve waterneofiet in Vlaanderen. Dumortiera 76: 28-29. author
Verloove F. & V. Boullet, 2001. Conyza bonariensis en Conyza sumatrensis: recent ingeburgerd in België? Dumortiera 77: 1-8. author
Verloove F., 2001. A revision of the genus Panicum (Poaceae, Paniceae) in Belgium. Syst. Geogr. Pl. 71: 53-72. author
Hoste I. & F. Verloove, 2001. De opgang van C4-grassen (Poaceae, Paniceae) in de snel evoluerende onkruidgemeenschappen in maïsakkers tussen Brugge en Gent (Vlaanderen, België). Dumortiera 78: 2-11. author
Verloove F., 2001. Pimpinella peregrina L., nieuw voor de Belgische flora te Ieper. Dumortiera 78: 18-20. author
Verloove F., 2001. Conyza bilbaoana J. Rémy, Cotoneaster x watereri Exell en Erigeron karvinskianus DC., nieuw voor de Belgische flora te Kortrijk. Dumortiera 78: 24-27. author
Van Landuyt W., F. Verloove & G. Heyneman, 2002. Verspreiding en status van Eragrostis-soorten in de omgeving van Gent. Dumortiera 79: 3-8. author
Verloove F., 2002. Petasites japonicus ook in België. Dumortiera 79: 21. author
Verloove F., 2002. Sorbaria tomentosa ingeburgerd op de vestingen van Ieper. Dumortiera 79: 22. author
Verloove, F.(2002). Ingeburgerde plantensoorten in Vlaanderen. Mededeling van het Instituut voor Natuurbehoud nr. 20, Brussel. author

created:2011-12-14 14:18:59 UTC, source:biodiv

© 2012 by the Belgian Biodiversity Platform